Note: This article was originally published at the Statistically Speaking blog at MVN.com on February 28, 2008.  Since the MVN.com site is defunct and its articles are no longer available on the web, I am re-publishing the article here.

 In Part 1 of this series, we examined Brian Bannister’s suggestions for why he has been able to beat the league BABIP. He indicated that it was probably due to pitching more often in favorable pitcher’s counts and inducing balls in play with two strikes, when the hitter is against the ropes. However, the evidence didn’t show much advantage for Bannister. We noted that he did pitch a little more often in favorable counts, but this led to him avoiding walks more than anything; it had little salutary effect on his BABIP.

In Part 2 of this series, we learned about the pitches that Bannister threw during 2007 and how he used them. We saw that the fastball and curveball were good pitches against right-handed hitters, and the slider was a good pitch against left-handed hitters.

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

In this final part of the series, we’re going to marry those two approaches to see if we can uncover any patterns that might explain Bannister’s BABIP performance. In this portion, I’m not concentrating so much on evaluating Bannister’s own statements, as I did on Part 1. Rather, I’m thinking more about what we can expect from Bannister in the future. I’m also interested in investigating techniques that could prove useful for evaluating DIPS theory on a component basis as we accumulate more PITCHf/x data in the coming seasons.

Should we expect Bannister to maintain any of his BABIP edge and thus his 3.87 ERA from 2007? Or are the projection systems like PECOTA (subscribers only) and CHONE more reasonable when they project an ERA of 5.19 or 4.74?



Note: This article was originally published at the Statistically Speaking blog at MVN.com on February 26, 2008.  Since the MVN.com site is defunct and its articles are no longer available on the web, I am re-publishing the article here.

In Part 1 of this analysis, we examined the league numbers for batting average on balls in play (BABIP) and whether Bannister was able to beat the league BABIP by pitching in favorable counts. We found that he did not gain any particular advantage by inducing more balls in play on two-strike counts, so we turn elsewhere to seek an explanation for his 2007 performance.

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

What pitches does Brian Bannister throw? The scouting reports tell an interesting tale, especially if you follow them back a couple years. In the minor leagues, the cut fastball was reputed to be his best pitch. His four-seam fastball was thrown in the high 80’s, touching 90, although he was able to locate it well, his curveball was a big breaker that was considered a plus pitch, his changeup was a work in progress, and his slider was regarded as a pitch likely to be scrapped. But in the fall of 2006 in the Mexican League, Bannister worked on a two-seam fastball, and after joining the Royals in trade for Ambiorix Burgos, he scrapped his cutter, experimented with different speeds on his curveball, and started throwing a slider again.

What can we see in the PITCHf/x data regarding his pitch repertoire in 2007?


Note: This article was originally published at the Statistically Speaking blog at MVN.com on February 24, 2008.  Since the MVN.com site is defunct and its articles are no longer available on the web, I am re-publishing the article here.

I’ll warn you from the start that the title is a tad ambitious. I don’t know exactly how Brian Bannister wins in the major leagues with a below-average fastball speed, but I hope to share some of what I have learned on the topic. This article will take the form of a three-part series.

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

In case you’ve been hiding under the proverbial sabermetric rock the last few weeks–maybe you’re one of those weirdos who believe players are human or you’ve been out of your garage recently to look at the sky–Brian Bannister gave a fascinating three-part interview to Tim Dierkes at MLB Trade Rumors last month.

In Part 3 of the interview, Bannister talked about his opponents’ batting average on balls in play (BABIP).

I think a lot of fans underestimate how much time I spend working with statistics to improve my performance on the field. For those that don’t know, the typical BABIP for starting pitchers in Major League Baseball is around .300 give or take a few points. The common (and valid) argument is that over the course of a pitcher’s career, he can not control his BABIP from year-to-year (because it is random), but over a period of time it will settle into the median range of roughly .300 (the peak of the bell curve). Therefore, pitchers that have a BABIP of under .300 are due to regress in subsequent years and pitchers with a BABIP above .300 should see some improvement (assuming they are a Major League Average pitcher).

Because I don’t have enough of a sample size yet (service time), I don’t claim to be able to beat the .300 average year in and year out at the Major League level. However, I also don’t feel that every pitcher is hopelessly bound to that .300 number for his career if he takes some steps to improve his odds – which is what pitching is all about.

In the interview, Bannister postulated a reason for his success on BABIP.

So, to finally answer the question about BABIP, if we look at the numbers above, how can a Major League pitcher try and beat the .300 BABIP average? By pitching in 0-2, 1-2, & 2-2 counts more often than the historical averages of pitchers in the Major Leagues. Until a pitcher reaches two strikes, he has no historical statistical advantage over the hitter. In fact, my batting averages against in 0-1, 1-0, & 1-1 counts are .297/.295/.311 respectively, very close to the roughly .300 average.

My explanation for why I have beat the average so far is that in my career I have been able to get a Major League hitter to put the ball in play in a 1-2 or 0-2 count 155 times, and in a 2-0 or 2-1 count 78 times. That’s twice as often in my favor, & I’ll take those odds.

This interview has gotten a lot of buzz in sabermetric cyberspace. Several people have taken a look at BABIP at different ball-strike counts, including my colleague at StatSpeak, Pizza Cutter. There seems to be some ability for the pitcher to control the count on which hitters put balls into play, but it looks like a fairly small effect on average. (Pizza, correct me if I’m summarizing your conclusions incorrectly.)

Bannister also mentioned to Dierkes that getting two strikes on the hitter gives him the strategic advantage in terms of pitch selection.

It is obvious that hitters, even at the Major League level, do not perform as well when the count is in the pitcher’s favor, and vice-versa. This is because with two strikes, a hitter HAS to swing at a pitch in the strike zone or he is out, and he must also make a split-second decision on whether a borderline pitch is a strike or not, reducing his ability to put a good swing on the ball. What this does is take away a hitter’s choice. If I throw a curveball with two strikes, the hitter has to swing if the pitch is in the strike zone, whether he is good at hitting a curveball or not. He also does not have a choice on location. We are all familiar with Ted Williams‘ famous strike zone averages at the Baseball Hall of Fame. It is well-known that a pitch knee-high on the outside corner will not have the same batting average or OBP/SLG/OPS as one waist-high right down the middle. Here is a comparison of the batting averages and slugging percentage on my fastball vs. my curveball:

Fastball: .246/.404
Curveball: .184/.265

We do know from John Walsh’s work something about batting average and slugging percentage against the typical major-league fastball (.330/.521) and curveball (.310/.471). If Bannister is correct in his numbers, he’s doing quite a bit better than the league with both the fastball and curveball. But is Bannister correct in the numbers he quotes and assertions he makes?

So far, most people are accepting what Bannister said at face value. Let’s take a closer look and see if we should believe his numbers and conclusions. We’ll draw on two data sets from the 2007 season. One is the standard pitch-by-pitch result data for all of Bannister’s 2603 pitches in 2007. With this data set we can examine results on balls in play and how Bannister performed in various ball-strike counts. The second data set is the detailed PITCHf/x trajectory data recorded for 1304 of Bannister’s pitches, or about half of his starts. With this data set we can identify pitch types and reliable strike zone location information in order to gain a greater understanding of Bannister’s pitching strategies.


Note: This article was originally published at the Statistically Speaking blog at MVN.com on December 22, 2007.  Since the MVN.com site is defunct and its articles are no longer available on the web, I am re-publishing the article here.

What if we knew what type of pitches every major league pitcher threw? What if we had detailed pitch-by-pitch data about how he used those pitches in every game situation? What if this information was accurate and freely accessible to baseball researchers?

Let’s begin with some history. Since Sportvision’s PITCHf/x system was unveiled during the 2006 playoffs, people have been thinking about using the detailed pitch data to classify pitches by type. Reference this comment by MLBAM’s Director of Stats, Cory Schwartz:

“When the system is installed in all 30 ballparks, it will provide unprecedented accuracy, consistency and depth of data to the measurement of speed and trajectory of each pitch,” Schwartz said. “Ultimately we’ll be able to use this data to determine the pitch type in real time and with greater accuracy than ever before. By recording all of this data in real time, we can provide it to broadcasters such as FOX, in-stadium scoreboards, fans via Enhanced Gameday, clubs and other business partners.

It wasn’t long before Baseball Analysts’ Joe Sheehan was leading the public research down that path, too, publishing articles in the spring of 2007 about pitch classification for pitchers like Jeff Weaver, Mike Mussina, and Kenny Rogers, using the data from the 2006 playoffs.

In April 2007, the PITCHf/x system was installed in nine ballparks, and this produced a wealth of data that encouraged more people to join the analysis fun. Dan Fox, Bill Ferris, and Steve West were among the leading PITCHf/x researchers in the first half of 2007, and although the work in the field covered a number of topics, pitch classification was often at the forefront.

Soon the quest turned toward developing a set of rules to classify pitches for many pitchers, perhaps for every major league pitcher. John Walsh published the early definitive article on this topic. In August, the analysis really began to heat up; for example, see these articles from John Beamer and Joe Sheehan. The quest for a pitch classification algorithm was on.


Note: This article was originally published at the Statistically Speaking blog at MVN.com on February 18, 2008.  Since the MVN.com site is defunct and its articles are no longer available on the web, I am re-publishing the article here.

Recent evidence may suggest otherwise, but I am still a contributor to Statistically Speaking. I’ve been working on an analysis that has been more difficult to bring to fruition than I expected; that, along with “real life” getting in the way more of late, is what has severely cut into my posting frequency.

However, in the process of number crunching for the analysis I’m doing, I came across some statistics that I haven’t seen posted publicly anywhere, not even in the Baseball-Reference splits. (Some of it is in the B-R splits, but not most of it.) Maybe I’ve just missed them, in which case drop me a line and let me know where else you found them. I thought these might be interesting to a few other people, so I’ll share them. Mostly, I’m just putting the numbers up here for the rest of you to enjoy, but I’ll also make a few comments on some trends that stuck out to me.

I’m looking at pitch data broken down by ball-strike count. I’m using the MLB Gameday 2007 data as my source. Today I present the breakdown of types of balls put into play by the hitter.

Ball Strike Total Pitches Total Safe Total Out Single Double Triple Home Run Field Error Other Safe
0 0 22029 0.341 0.659 0.214 0.069 0.007 0.039 0.012 0.001
0 1 17222 0.329 0.671 0.222 0.062 0.005 0.027 0.012 0.001
0 2 7878 0.319 0.681 0.228 0.049 0.005 0.022 0.013 0.001
1 0 14030 0.344 0.656 0.212 0.070 0.007 0.044 0.010 0.001
1 1 16576 0.334 0.666 0.214 0.066 0.006 0.034 0.012 0.001
1 2 14626 0.326 0.674 0.220 0.059 0.006 0.025 0.014 0.001
2 0 5015 0.355 0.645 0.202 0.077 0.007 0.056 0.012 0.000
2 1 10308 0.349 0.651 0.212 0.074 0.007 0.041 0.014 0.001
2 2 14861 0.330 0.670 0.215 0.062 0.009 0.030 0.012 0.001
3 0 251 0.402 0.598 0.167 0.120 0.008 0.092 0.012 0.004
3 1 4393 0.376 0.624 0.214 0.083 0.009 0.056 0.013 0.001
3 2 11019 0.351 0.649 0.216 0.070 0.007 0.045 0.012 0.001
total 138208 0.338 0.662 0.216 0.066 0.007 0.036 0.012 0.001
Ball Strike Ground Out Fly Out Pop Out Line Out Force Out Ground into DP
0 0 0.208 0.195 0.073 0.043 0.036 0.034
0 1 0.270 0.183 0.067 0.047 0.034 0.034
0 2 0.291 0.181 0.070 0.047 0.039 0.033
1 0 0.225 0.206 0.078 0.048 0.031 0.032
1 1 0.267 0.194 0.070 0.046 0.031 0.030
1 2 0.293 0.181 0.076 0.047 0.033 0.028
2 0 0.218 0.217 0.077 0.051 0.028 0.027
2 1 0.254 0.198 0.075 0.049 0.026 0.025
2 2 0.278 0.194 0.076 0.051 0.031 0.025
3 0 0.171 0.219 0.096 0.040 0.024 0.020
3 1 0.213 0.213 0.081 0.049 0.023 0.021
3 2 0.264 0.212 0.080 0.055 0.009 0.012
total 0.254 0.195 0.074 0.048 0.030 0.029
Ball Strike Sac Bunt Sac Fly Double Play Bunt Ground Out Field. Ch. Out Bunt Pop Out Other Out
0 0 0.033 0.014 0.004 0.010 0.002 0.005 0.001
0 1 0.015 0.010 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.000
0 2 0.004 0.010 0.003 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.001
1 0 0.014 0.011 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.000
1 1 0.010 0.008 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.000
1 2 0.002 0.007 0.003 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000
2 0 0.008 0.013 0.005 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000
2 1 0.005 0.010 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.000
2 2 0.001 0.009 0.003 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000
3 0 0.000 0.024 0.000 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000
3 1 0.004 0.012 0.004 0.001 0.003 0.000 0.000
3 2 0.001 0.009 0.005 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000
total 0.011 0.010 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.000

Ball in Play Safe Percentage vs Count

A hitter reaches base safely more often on balls in play when the count is in his favor. Don’t change the channel, the revelations like that just keep on coming at StatSpeak, and you don’t want to miss one!

Okay. My first slightly less than completely and utterly obvious observation is that the home run rate is strongly tied to the count.

Ball in Play Home Run Percentage vs Count

The doubles rate shows the same effect, but smaller, as does the triples rate to some extent. The singles rate stays pretty flat with respect to count, although there is a bit of an inverse effect–in better hitter’s counts, the hitter gets more extra base hits and slightly fewer singles.I haven’t looked at the type of batted ball (fly ball, line drive, ground ball, bunt, etc.) that results in hits. That’s a bit more difficult to parse out of the Gameday data. Since it doesn’t have its own field, getting that information requires some regular expression matching on the text description of the play. That’s fairly straightforward but nonetheless a nontrivial bit of coding that makes it a project for some point in the future rather than part of this data set for me.

Ball in Play Groundout-Flyout Ratio vs Count

Another thing I noticed was that there were more groundouts and less flyouts the more strikes and less balls there were in the count. As pitchers gain the upper hand, they tend to get more groundball outs. I didn’t include popups and line drives in the accompanying chart since they didn’t show a strong tendency relative to count.

I saw a couple other things that are obvious once you think about them, but it was interesting to me to see them reflected in the data. The first was that force outs, GIDPs, and fielder’s choice outs all go down dramatically with a 3-2 count, dropping from 6.4% to 2.3% of balls in play. Presumably this is because the runners are often going with the pitch on 3-2.

The second thing that interested me was the favorite counts for hitters to bunt for an out. (Bunting for a hit is not included for the reason mentioned previously.)

Count Bunt Outs
0-0 0.043
0-1 0.019
0-2 0.004
1-0 0.016
1-1 0.013
1-2 0.002
2-0 0.008
2-1 0.006
2-2 0.001
3-0 0.000
3-1 0.005
3-2 0.001

If I don’t get around to presenting my full analysis in a timely fashion, I’ll see if I can present a few more statistical tidbits like this along the way.

Note: This article was originally published at the Statistically Speaking blog at MVN.com on December 13, 2007.  Since the MVN.com site is defunct and its articles are no longer available on the web, I am re-publishing the article here.

I don’t know any other major league pitcher who relies on his cut fastball to nearly the same extent as Mariano Rivera, but there are many pitchers who use a cutter to some degree. Most of them, like Josh Beckett, merely put a little “cut” on a fastball now and then, and it’s debatable whether to classify it as a separate pitch in their repertoire. Some of them, like Greg Maddux, throw both a cut fastball and another fastball as fairly distinct pitches. A few others, like our subject today, throw a single type of fastball that moves more like a cutter than it does like a traditional four-seamer. Do we also label this kind of a pitch a cut fastball?

The cutter is second only, perhaps, to the slider in the flexibility of its definition. Almost every starting pitcher is said to throw a cutter by an obscure report somewhere. I’ve learned to discount these notional references, but I pay a lot more attention when the pitcher himself or his catcher says he threw a cutter.

Which brings us to Joakim Soria, closer for the Kansas City Royals. The Royals picked him up from the San Diego Padres in the Rule 5 draft last winter, and what a find that was! He had been pitching well in the Mexican League, and showed his stuff for the Royals last year when the closer of plan, Octavio Dotel, was first injured and later traded. Soria appeared in 62 games, pitched 69 innings, allowing 46 hits, 19 walks, and only three home runs, while racking up 75 strikeouts to go with 17 saves and 2.48 ERA.

What pitches does Joakim Soria throw? His catcher John Buck reports:

“It’s hard to pick him up. His ball has a natural cut to it. Not as much as [Rafael] Soriano but it does have a cut to it. That’s just his natural fastball,” Buck said.

“He has a great slider and curveball and can throw his change-up on any count. You have to kind of speed up your bat to get the head up to hit the cutter and, all of a sudden, he throws a changeup and it makes it difficult — sitting in-between those two is a tough place to be as a hitter.”

So his catcher calls his fastball a cutter. Let’s take a look at the data we have from PITCHf/x for the 2007 season, covering 477 pitches for Joakim Soria. I’ll begin with a graph of pitch speed versus the angle at which the spin on the ball is deflecting the pitch.

Soria has a fastball with a lot of cut that runs 89-94 mph. The cut fastball is his bread-and-butter pitch; he uses it for 69% of his pitches to lefties and 78% of his pitches to righties.

He has a changeup with a lot of lateral action that he throws 80-84 mph. He uses the changeup almost exclusively to lefties, making up 19% of his pitches to them.

As his off-speed pitch to righties, Soria uses a slider with a big break that runs 76-81 mph. The slider makes up 11% of his pitches to right-handed hitters.

Rounding out his repertoire is a slow curveball that Soria throws 66-71 mph. The curveball makes up 10% of his pitches, and he uses it equally to lefties and righties.

Let’s look at how these pitches move from the hitter’s perspective.

All of Soria’s pitches have good movement. His fastball has”cut” to it, and his changeup has good lateral and vertical movement when compared to his fastball. His slider looks like most pitchers’ curveballs, and his curveball is a slow ball with a lot of drop.

Next, let’s look at what pitches Soria throws in each ball-strike count.

Count Cutter Changeup Slider Curveball Total
0-0 114 6 6 0 126
0-1 40 14 12 2 68
0-2 19 3 2 16 40
1-0 39 3 1 0 43
1-1 35 3 5 1 44
1-2 19 2 1 20 42
2-0 14 0 0 0 14
2-1 24 1 0 0 25
2-2 22 7 5 10 44
3-0 0 0 0 0 0
3-1 3 1 0 0 4
3-2 25 2 0 0 27
Ahead 78 19 15 38 150
Even 171 16 16 11 214
Behind 105 7 1 0 113
0 strikes 167 9 7 0 183
1 strike 102 19 17 3 141
2 strikes 85 14 8 46 153
Ball 0-1 266 31 27 39 363
Ball 2-3 88 11 5 10 114
Total 354 42 32 49 477

And here’s the same information presented graphically:

We can see that until he gets a strike, Soria uses almost only the cut fastball, and when he gets two strikes, he brings out the curveball pretty often, except in a 3-2 count, where he sticks with the cutter. This would imply that the curveball is his strikeout pitch and that he has trouble getting strikes with his off-speed pitches.

As a second opinion, you can look at what Josh Kalk’s algorithm spit out for Joakim Soria. Josh also has release point data there if you are interested in that.

Finally, let’s examine where Soria throws his pitches and what results he gets.

Cutter 34 44 30 10 20 8 12 0.286 0.429 77% 85%
Changeup 15 3 11 5 5 2 3 0.286 0.429 63% 78%
Slider 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0%
Curveball 10 1 1 10 1 0 0 0.000 0.000 57% 17%
Cutter 60 43 54 18 24 9 15 0.273 0.455 71% 83%
Changeup 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 100%
Slider 14 3 0 5 6 2 5 0.250 0.625 53% 62%
Curveball 10 5 2 7 2 0 0 0.000 0.000 62% 36%

CS=called strike, SS=swinging strike, IPO=in play (out), IPNO=in play (no out), TB=total bases, BABIP=batting average on balls in play (including home runs), SLGBIP=slugging average on balls in play (including home runs). For Strk% all pitches other than balls are counted as strikes. Con% = (Foul+IPO+IPNO)/(Foul+IPO+IPNO+SS).

Our earlier conclusions seem to hold up.

Here are Soria’s results for the cut fastball.

To lefties, Soria seems willing to pound the zone with the cutter, and his results indicate that strategy works. Against righties, he works more up and away. He misses the zone a little more often, and he generates more foul balls, but his results are still good.

Moving on, let’s see the results for the changeup and slider:

As I mentioned earlier, Soria uses the changeup to lefties and the slider to righties. In both cases, he likes to throw down and away. It looks like he has trouble throwing the slider consistently for strikes.

Last, but not least, the curveball.

Soria gets a lot of swinging strikes in the zone to both lefties and righties. The only difference appears to be when he misses–down and away to righties, and up and away or down and in to lefties.

Since I mentioned earlier that the curveball looked like Soria’s strikeout pitch, let’s check on that. We have PITCHf/x data for 40 of his 75 strikeouts. For those 40 K’s, 23 of them were on the curveball, 9 on the cutter, 4 on the changeup, and 3 on the slider.

I hope you enjoyed the analysis of one of my favorite players from my favorite team. My work’s had a bit of an “East Coast bias” lately, which feels a bit odd to me. I don’t expect to continue solely in that vein. If nothing else, you should see a Royal popping up in this space now and then.

Note: This article was originally published at the Statistically Speaking blog at MVN.com on January 29, 2008.  Since the MVN.com site is defunct and its articles are no longer available on the web, I am re-publishing the article here.

Despite winning the American League West with a 94-68 record last year, the LA of Anaheim Angels have gotten short shrift from the PITCHf/x analysts thus far. The only writeup that the pitching staff has gotten was one by Joe Sheehan on John Lackey three weeks into the season. I’d like to remedy that a little bit today. The Angels had three outstanding starters: Lackey, Kelvim Escobar, and Jered Weaver. Let’s take a detailed look into the pitching performance of Kelvim Escobar.

Escobar is a 31-year-old right hander from LaGuaira, Venezuela. He was a former starter turned reliever (and closer) and back to starter again for the Toronto Blue Jays before joining the Anaheim Angels in 2004. He’s struggled to stay completely healthy, but overall he has turned in some fine numbers for the Angels in four years: a 43-35 record and 3.60 ERA in 109 starts, allowing 611 hits and 213 walks against 561 strikeouts in 653 innings.

Since the Big A was one of the original nine stadiums to have a camera system installed from the beginning of the 2007 season, the large majority of Escobar’s season was recorded by the PITCHf/x system, 2469 of his total 3141 pitches. This gives us a good data set to identify his pitches and examine his pitching tendencies.

Escobar throws quite an array of pitches: a four-seam and two-seam fastball, a changeup and split-finger, a slider and a curveball. According to scouting reports, he is capable with all six pitches.

Here I’ve shown two graphs that I use for pitch classification. The first graph shows the speed of his pitches versus the direction they break, in polar graph format. The second graph shows the movement due to the forces of spin deflection and gravity on his pitches in the last quarter-second before they cross the plate.

There are a couple other ways to look at the vertical vs. horizontal deflection over the whole pitch trajectory:

Escobar’s four-seam fastball runs 92-96 mph, and the average spin deflection he gets on the four-seamer is a 10-inch hop and a 4-inch tail in toward right-handers. Compared to a league-average fastball, that’s 3 mph faster but with a couple inches less lateral movement, probably due to the fact that his motion is more over-the-top than many right-handed pitchers. The four-seamer is one of Escobar’s main pitches to both lefties (26% of the time) and righties (27%).

Escobar’s two-seam fastball also runs 92-96 mph, but its average spin deflection is an 8-inch hop and a 7-inch tail in toward right-handers. The two-seamer is his primary pitch to lefties (28% of the time) and also a main pitch to right-handers (24%). I made the division between the four-seamer and the two-seamer by looking at the spin direction of each pitch on a game-by-game basis, but the dividing line between the two is still a bit fuzzy to me.

His split-finger fastball runs 85-89 mph, and its average spin deflection is a 6-inch hop and a 6-inch tail in toward right-handers. Escobar uses the splitter fairly often to left-handers (15% of the time) but only infrequently to right-handers (6%).

His changeup runs 83-87 mph, and its average spin deflection is a 10-inch hop and a 3-inch tail in toward righties. The 9-mph separation between his fastball and changeup is about average for major league pitchers. He uses the changeup more often to lefties (16% of the time) but also some against righties (11%).

Escobar’s slider runs 85-89 mph, and its average spin deflection is a 3-inch hop and a 2-inch break away from righties. That’s about 3 mph harder than the average major-league slider, with typical movement. The slider is one of his favorite pitches to right-handed hitters (25% of the time) and is rarely used against lefties (2%).

Finally, his curveball runs 79-84 mph, and its average spin deflection is a 3-inch drop and a 1-inch break away from right-handers. That’s about 4 mph harder than the average major-league curveball, with 12-to-6 movement that is somewhat rare. (The spin deflection on the average major-league curveball is a 2-inch drop and a 5-inch cut. John Walsh’s article is my source for league average numbers.)

Next, let’s look at how Escobar mixes his pitches in different ball-strike counts, which I’ve split out by batter handedness. The picture gets a bit messy when a man throws six different pitches, but let’s dive in and see what we see.

To lefties, Escobar uses the four-seamer on any count and relies on it a little more if he falls behind. He throws the curveball early in the count, 22% of the time with no balls, 9% of the time with 1 ball, and only 3% of the time with 2 or 3 balls in the count. He favors the two-seamer with 0 or 1 strike, 33% of the time, but uses it only 16% of the time with 2 strikes. Instead, with 2 strikes he relies on the splitter 32% of the time. He’ll throw the changeup at almost any count except 0-2 and 3-0, but he likes to throw it more when he’s behind in the count, in which case he throws it 25% of the time.

Early in the count with Escobar, lefties should expect to see the two-seamer, the four-seamer, the curveball, and the changeup, in that order. If Escobar gets the hitter down 0-2 or 1-2, he should expect the splitter (41% of the time) or perhaps a fastball (41%), but if the count goes 2-2 or 3-2, he should start to watch for the changeup, too (33%).

To righties, early in the count, Escobar throws hard stuff, 31% two-seamers, 28% sliders, 23% four-seamers, and only 18% of his other three pitches combined. When he gets 2 strikes, the two-seamer disappears (only 3%), but he’s willing to show the splitter (14%). The changeup gets used a little with 1 strike (11%), but at 2-1 or 2-2 it’s a favored pitch (26%), and at 3-2, it’s his favorite pitch (34%), like it was to lefties. Righties can expect the curveball mainly at a single count: 0-2, where Escobar uses it 28% of the time; it’s little used (6%) in other counts.

What kind of results does Escobar get with each of his pitches? His four-seam fastball is a pretty good pitch, but his two-seamer grades out poorer. All four of his off-speed pitches are above average. I should mention that the PITCHf/x games for Escobar are missing his two worst starts of the year, which skews all the following numbers a little bit in his favor.

LHH _Ball_ _CS_ _Foul_ _SS_ InPlay _Avg_ _BABIP_ _SLG_ __HR__
4-seamer 0.33 0.26 0.17 0.06 0.18 0.315 0.315 0.444 0.000
2-seamer 0.40 0.17 0.18 0.05 0.20 0.338 0.317 0.523 0.031
Splitter 0.35 0.09 0.19 0.17 0.19 0.294 0.273 0.441 0.029
Changeup 0.39 0.14 0.15 0.12 0.20 0.216 0.216 0.297 0.000
Slider 0.22 0.11 0.39 0.06 0.22 0.500 0.500 0.750 0.000
Curveball 0.35 0.32 0.09 0.13 0.11 0.353 0.353 0.412 0.000
RHH _Ball_ _CS_ _Foul_ _SS_ InPlay _Avg_ _BABIP_ _SLG_ __HR__
4-seamer 0.41 0.17 0.20 0.08 0.14 0.176 0.176 0.216 0.000
2-seamer 0.39 0.26 0.14 0.04 0.17 0.415 0.392 0.585 0.038
Splitter 0.36 0.04 0.15 0.19 0.26 0.158 0.158 0.211 0.000
Changeup 0.27 0.06 0.12 0.28 0.26 0.237 0.216 0.316 0.026
Slider 0.35 0.17 0.11 0.16 0.22 0.254 0.243 0.352 0.014
Curveball 0.39 0.23 0.11 0.14 0.14 0.154 0.154 0.154 0.000
Lg. Avg. _Ball_ _CS_ _Foul_ _SS_ InPlay _Avg_ _BABIP_ _SLG_ __HR__
Fastball 0.36 0.19 0.19 0.06 0.19 0.330 0.304 0.521 0.037
Changeup 0.40 0.11 0.14 0.13 0.21 0.319 0.295 0.502 0.035
Slider 0.36 0.14 0.17 0.13 0.20 0.310 0.286 0.481 0.033
Curveball 0.40 0.19 0.13 0.11 0.21 0.310 0.290 0.471 0.029

The league average information comes from John Walsh’s article. In the following pitch location charts, I’ve changed my color-coding a bit to try to improve readability for those with color blindness. Hopefully the new system is an improvement.

Escobar works with the four-seamer on the outer half of the plate to both lefties and righties, although with lefties he works down more and avoids coming inside, and with righties he works up more and works inside just off the plate. He has some trouble throwing the four-seamer for strikes to righties (only 59%, compared to 64% league average), but when he does, and they put in play, he gets very good results: .176/.216 (avg/slg), compared to .330/.521 major-league average off the fastball.

To lefties, he’s much better at throwing the four-seamer for strikes (67%), and he gets a lot of called strikes (26% compared to 19% league average), but his results on balls in play are only fair: .315/.444 avg/slg. He didn’t allow a single home run in 31 fly balls hit off the four-seamer in PITCHf/x games. That is unusual–fastballs are the most homered-upon pitch for most pitchers.

Escobar has trouble throwing the two-seamer for strikes, getting it over only 60% of the time. As with the four-seamer, he works mainly on the outer part of the plate to both lefties and righties. However, both lefties and righties have good success when they put the two-seamer into play. Lefties hit .338/.523, and righties hit .415/.585.

The splitter is Escobar’s strikeout pitch to lefties, and you can see why. They swing and miss at it down and away more often than not. He doesn’t necessarily throw it in the strike zone that much, but he gets strikes because the hitters chase it. When he does get it in the zone, hitters do much better with it, making at least decent contact and racking up a .294/.441 line, including a home run.

He doesn’t throw the splitter nearly as much to righties, although I wonder if maybe he should. He still gets a lot of swings and misses (19%, compared to 13% league average), but righties are able to put the ball in play almost every time he gets the splitter in the zone. However, the right-handed hitters don’t fare nearly as well as lefties on balls in play, hitting only a meager .158/.211. Perhaps it’s the small sample size (19 balls in play), or maybe righties really do have trouble getting good wood on the splitter.

The changeup is the first pitch where we see a marked contrast in Escobar’s location to lefties and righties. To lefties, he pitches away, away, away. He gets some swings and misses in the zone, but lefties don’t chase the changeup out of the strike zone much. On balls hit into play by lefties, Escobar does well, a .216/.297 line, compared to .319/.502 against an average major-league changeup.

To righties, he throws the changeup mostly in the zone or on the corner low and away. He gets a lot of swings and misses, especially on the outside corner. The changeup is a very effective pitch against righties. No wonder he likes to throw it as a strikeout pitch to righties. Moreover, even though he pounds the heart of the zone, righties have little luck on balls in play, hitting only .237/.316. Most right-handed pitchers avoid throwing the changeup to right-handed hitters, but for Escobar in that situation, it’s a great pitch and one he could perhaps use even more often.

As you can see, his slider is rarely used to lefties, mostly thrown up and in and fouled off. To righties, he uses the slider a lot, and to good effect. He gets a good number of called strikes (17%, versus 14% league average) and swinging strikes (16%, versus 13% average), and when the ball is put in play, Escobar also fares well, allowing a .254/.352 avg/slg, compared to .310/.481 against an average major-league slider. Those numbers include allowing only 1 home run on 27 fly balls hit by righties off the slider–luck or skill?

Finally, we come to the curveball, Escobar’s least-used pitch. He throws it mostly down and away to both righties and lefties, although he also throws it in the zone quite a bit. He gets a lot of called strikes, especially to lefties (32%), but also to righties (23%), compared to league average of 19% with the curve. Most pitchers rarely throw the curveball as the first pitch to a batter. Escobar, on the other hand, often throws a lefty a curveball right across the plate for strike one looking. Lefties don’t often make contact with the curveball, but when they do, the results are decent: .353/.412, compared to league average against the curve of .310/.471.

Right-handers see the curveball more often with two strikes, and it’s a good strikeout pitch for Escobar, both swinging (at balls in the dirt) and looking. Righties don’t make contact with the curve very often, either, and when they do, their results are particularly poor: in 13 curveballs in play, righties hit 10 groundballs (including two double plays), 2 fly balls, and one line drive. The line drive and one groundball landed as singles, for a .154 average.

In summary, Escobar has a solid four-seam fastball which he complements with a weaker two-seamer, and his array of off-speed pitches is impressive. His changeup, splitter, curveball, and slider are all well above average pitches, and some of them, particularly his changeup, are among the best in baseball. He struggles with control on his fastball, and this, along with the recurrent health problems, is probably all that keeps him from being one of the very best pitchers in baseball.

As a final note, I thought this was a great photo from MLB.com of Kelvim Escobar in full stride.

If you enjoyed this article, you might be interested in my similar previous analysis of Erik Bedard, Johan Santana, James Shields, Mariano Rivera, Joakim Soria, Josh Beckett, Joba Chamberlain, or Eric Gagne.

Note: This article was originally published at the Statistically Speaking blog at MVN.com on January 9, 2008.  Since the MVN.com site is defunct and its articles are no longer available on the web, I am re-publishing the article here.

Who is the best pitcher in baseball right now? Some might answer that question with Jake Peavy or Josh Beckett, but I’d guess that at least 7 out of 10 times, the answer you would get is Minnesota Twins left-hander Johan Santana. Santana is a 28-year-old from Tovar, Venezuela, and after his fourth full year in the starting rotation, he already owns two Cy Young Award trophies.

Now, as Santana approaches the final season of the 4-year, $39.75 million contract he signed three years ago, the Twins appear eager to trade him, and the reported suitors include such teams as the New York Yankees, Boston Red Sox, and New York Mets, subject to Santana’s approval. I’ll leave the predictions of where he’ll land to those who are better qualified or more eager to comment than I am. However, I’d like to take a look at the pitching repertoire and strategy of possibly the best pitcher in baseball.

If you look at the scouting reports, they all talk about Johan Santana’s devastating changeup and how he works to make his throwing motion identical for all pitches. Most scouting reports list three pitches for Santana–fastball, changeup, and slider–and mention that his changeup comes in 15-20 mph slower than his fastball. Were this true, it would be highly unusual. Most major league changeups are 7-10 mph slower than the pitcher’s fastball. A few scouting reports speak of five pitches–two fastballs, a slider, a circle change, and a straight change. The most useful and interesting scouting information I found was an interview from 2006 that Pat Borzi conducted for the Sporting News with Johan Santana and his catcher Joe Mauer.

Santana throws four pitches for strikes-four- and two-seam fastballs between 92 and 95 mph, a slider/curve in the 84- to 87-mph range and a changeup that’s about 15 to 20 mph slower than the fastball. The changeup is his strikeout pitch; when Santana is on, he throws it from the same arm angle and release point as his fastball, and hitters can’t tell the difference until it’s too late.

I also found this quote from Santana interesting given that most people acknowledge his changeup as his best pitch:

“I want to make sure my two-seam fastball is working,” Santana says. “That’s my best pitch, and it’s going to make my other pitches look even better. That’s what I try to do all the time.”

We have detailed data from the PITCHf/x system for 1032 of Santana’s 3345 pitches during the 2007 season. Let’s dive in and see what we can learn about Santana’s repertoire and effectiveness with his various pitches.

Santana has at least three obvious pitch groupings: fastball, changeup, and breaking ball. Here I’ve shown two graphs that I use for pitch classification. The first graph shows the speed of his pitches versus the direction they break, in polar graph format. The second graph shows the movement on his pitches in the last quarter-second before they cross the plate, due to the forces of spin deflection and gravity.

The fastballs run 89-95 mph, and it’s hard to tell from these graphs alone whether Santana really does throw two different fastballs or just one. Through additional analysis, which I will explain shortly, as well as Santana’s own comments, I concluded that he did in fact throw a four-seam and a two-seam fastball and have coded them separately in these graphs.

We can also see that Santana throws two different offspeed pitches. One has a movement very similar to the fastball but is thrown slower at 80-84 mph. This is his changeup. It’s interesting to note that we see a 10 mph difference in speeds between his fastball and his changeup, typical of other major league changeups and nothing like the 15-20 mph difference that was reported by other sources. I don’t know if that was just the stuff of legend or whether Santana has changed his approach in recent years. More likely, people were comparing Santana’s very slowest changeup with his very fastest fastball and writing as if that represented a typical pitching pattern.

I could not find any sign of two different changeups in Santana’s repertoire, at least not two changeups that consistently have different movement or speed.

Santana’s other offspeed pitch is an 83-88 mph breaking ball, described in various scouting reports as either a slider or a curveball. Based on the spin direction, the speed, and the direction of break, it’s very clearly a slider. In the first graph of pitch speed vs. spin deflection angle, the calculation of the spin deflection angle for some of the sliders contains a good deal of error since the spin of those sliders is nearly aligned around the direction of travel of the pitch, resulting in spin deflection of only a couple inches or less. This is one of the classic indicators of a slider.

The sliders and changeups look difficult to separate at the margins in the two graphs I presented above, but including the (x-z component of the) spin rate in the discussion makes that task much easier.

Returning to the topic I mentioned earlier, how did I determine whether Santana threw both a four-seam and a two-seam fastball? Looking at the data in aggregate, it was impossible to see a dividing line, but when I examined the spin and break on a start-by-start basis, a little bit of order appeared out of the murkiness. In some starts, two separate groupings were obvious. In most starts, the dividing line was subtle. In a few cases, it was hard to find a dividing line at all. I did notice that the fastballs with the most sink and the slowest speed were thrown almost exclusively to right-handed hitters, and this, in addition to Santana’s own comments about throwing a two-seamer, gave me confidence in making a distinction between the two fastballs.

If you look at the comments from John Walsh and John Beamer on my Erik Bedard analysis, you’ll see that having to examine the data on a start-by-start basis in order to make an accurate pitch classification diagnosis is a recurring problem. We’d like to be able to look at a pitcher’s season data as a whole. This is an important area for further investigation.

Here are a couple more traditionally-used PITCHf/x graphs of pitch movement for those who are interested:

How does Santana use his pitches to left-handed and right-handed hitters? As a left-handed pitcher, he naturally sees predominantly right-handed hitters, making up 75% of his opponents. To righties, he throws about 41% four-seam fastballs, 35% changeups, 18% two-seam fastballs, and 6% sliders. To lefties, he throws 60% fastballs, 29% sliders, 7% changeups, and 4% two-seam fastballs. Against righties he’s the stereotypical fastball-changeup Santana that I’ve heard about. Against lefties, he’s a totally different pitcher, eschewing the changeup and the two-seam fastball and relying on a fastball-slider combination.

Next, let’s look at how Santana mixes his pitches in different ball-strike counts. I’ve split this out by batter handedness as well.

Against righties, you can see that the changeup is his favorite pitch with two strikes (57% of the time), and he mixes in his two-seam fastball more if he falls behind in the count (28% when behind vs. 15% when ahead or even).

Against lefties, he’s relies on the four-seamer about 70% of the time in most situations. With two strikes he feels confident enough to occasionally (14%) introduce the changeup to lefties, and on an 0-2 count, you can count on getting a slider two thirds of the time.

What’s the bottom line–what results does Santana get with his pitches? I attempted for a while to cast the answer to that question in terms of run values for each pitch determined by linear weights, but I’ve postponed that endeavor for the moment. There are too many pieces that I haven’t figured out how to put together yet. So here are the results in the same format I used in the Bedard article.

Fastball 0.32 0.20 0.25 0.10 0.13 0.316 0.188 0.842 0.158
Sinker 0.70 0.10 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Slider 0.34 0.13 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.308 0.308 0.462 0.000
Changeup 0.24 0.06 0.18 0.24 0.29 0.400 0.400 0.400 0.000
Fastball 0.32 0.20 0.26 0.12 0.11 0.235 0.188 0.500 0.059
Sinker 0.35 0.17 0.24 0.06 0.19 0.333 0.250 0.741 0.111
Slider 0.38 0.12 0.24 0.08 0.18 0.111 0.000 0.444 0.111
Changeup 0.32 0.08 0.15 0.31 0.15 0.357 0.325 0.667 0.048
Lg. Avg. Ball CStrk Foul SStrk InPlay Avg BABIP SLG HR
Fastball 0.36 0.19 0.19 0.06 0.19 0.330 0.304 0.521 0.037
Slider 0.36 0.14 0.17 0.13 0.20 0.310 0.286 0.481 0.033
Changeup 0.40 0.11 0.14 0.13 0.21 0.319 0.295 0.502 0.035

The league average information comes from John Walsh’s article, and once again I’m using an adaptation of his format to present this information.

The four-seamer is Santana’s bread and butter, especially to lefties, and a good bit of creamy butter it has. He throws it for strikes and gets more swings and misses with it than most pitchers do. Hitters have a hard time putting the four-seamer into play, and when they do, Santana also gets really good results (a .188 BABIP compared to .304 league average BABIP on the fastball), although lefty batters–Hafner, Sizemore, and Thome–did hit three home runs off the four-seamer in our data set. He mostly pounds the zone with the pitch to both lefties and righties, although there appears to be some tendency toward pitching up and away from lefties and up and in to righties.

Santana doesn’t use the two-seamer much against lefties, and when he did, it was mostly for a ball. He works in the zone against righties and gets fairly average results with the two-seam fastball. One surprising thing to note is that he still gives up a lot of fly balls off the two-seamer; almost 70% of balls in play off the two-seamer were fly balls. The two-seamer seems like his weakest pitch based on the results we have from 2007, so I’m not sure I understand his statement from the Sporting News interview that it’s his best pitch.

Just look at all the red bleeding over the graph from the swinging strikes, and you know all you need to know about Santana’s changeup. The hitters can’t hit it. Santana can throw it for strikes just as well as his fastball. He throws it down and away from righties, and he gets a lot of swings and misses when they chase the changeup down out of the strike zone. When he gets it too close to the heart of the zone, they do make decent contact. It would go without saying, but this is an outstanding pitch.

Against lefties, Santana uses the slider mostly down and away, and he gets pretty average results with it. Against righties, he features the slider less often. When he does throw it, he keeps it inside. When he gets it up, it gets put in play, but he had fairly good results on a limited sample of balls in play except for one slider that Alex Rios launched 414 feet into the left field seats at the stadium formerly known as SkyDome.

I also looked a bit at pitch sequencing. Here’s a table showing what pitch a hitter is most likely to see from Santana based on what the previous pitch was.

Previous Pitch Fastball Sinker Slider Changeup
Fastball 66% 4% 26% 4%
Sinker 67% 0% 33% 0%
Slider 60% 9% 27% 4%
Changeup 76% 0% 24% 0%
Previous Pitch Fastball Sinker Slider Changeup
Fastball 52% 16% 5% 27%
Sinker 46% 21% 3% 31%
Slider 42% 30% 9% 18%
Changeup 43% 15% 8% 34%

I don’t notice any particular patterns to lefties, but to righties he’s more likely to throw the two-seamer after a previous two-seamer, and he’s more likely to throw a changeup after another changeup.

Johan Santana had yet another great season in 2007. He allowed a few more walks and home runs than in previous years, but without PITCHf/x data from previous seasons, I don’t have any way to know whether that was simply luck or a change in his pitching abilities and strategies.

I looked at the 11 home-run balls off Santana for which we have PITCHf/x data, and I couldn’t detect any useful patterns. They were mostly hit off pitches up and over the plate, but that doesn’t come as much of a surprise. Looking at the HitTracker data, he wasn’t burned by many short home runs barely sneaking over the fence, so he wasn’t unlucky in that regard, at least. This may be a topic for further investigation or possibly just the result of Santana being a fly ball pitcher and getting a little unlucky with how hard the hitters hit 33 of those fly balls in 2007.

Santana obviously has an outstanding changeup and a strong fastball, but you probably knew that already. What I didn’t know was how infrequently he uses the changeup against lefties or most of the other nuances of his pitching strategy. Unless you’re Joe Mauer or Mike Redmond (in which case, Hi!), hopefully you feel like you know the best pitcher in baseball a little better than you did before.

If you’re an employee of a Mr. Steinbrenner or a Mr. Henry gathering information for a future trade, by all means feel free to contact to me regarding where to send that check for my services. 🙂

Note: This article was originally published at the Statistically Speaking blog at MVN.com on January 14, 2008.  Since the MVN.com site is defunct and its articles are no longer available on the web, I am re-publishing the article here.

Many of you are hopefully familiar with the PITCHf/x system and at least some of the data and analysis that have been produced on the subject over the past year, but it may be completely new to some of you. In either case, I thought it would be helpful to provide an introduction and tutorial on the information that is available. I’ll point toward some existing resources and try to fill in some of the gaps. I’ve divided this primer into sections so you can easily skip to the parts that interest you.

  1. What is PITCHf/x?
  2. How do I get and use the data?
  3. Where can I find resources?
  4. How do I identify pitch types?
  5. How do I interpret graphs?
  6. Is the data reliable?
  7. Where can I go for further discussion and study?

1. What is PITCHf/x?

PITCHf/x is a system developed by Sportvision and introduced in Major League Baseball during the 2006 playoffs. It uses two cameras to record the position of the pitched baseball during its flight from the pitcher’s hand to home plate, and various parameters are measured and calculated to describe the trajectory and speed of each pitch. It was instituted in most ballparks throughout MLB as the 2007 season progressed, such that we have PITCHf/x data for a little over a third of the games from 2007. MLBAM used the PITCHf/x data in their Enhanced Gameday application and also made the data freely available for downloading and research.

In some ways, PITCHf/x is a bridge between scouting and analysis, giving us an objective window into the batter-pitcher matchup at a level we’ve never seen before. In 2008, the system should be installed in every major-league ballpark, and we will hopefully have complete detail for every pitch, although MLB has not committed to whether all the data will continue to be freely available in the future.

2. How do I get and use the data?

If you want to look at the XML data from a single game, you can go to the MLB website and browse through the files. Data is organized by year, month, day, and game. Within each game directory are a number of subdirectories containing the data in XML format. If you want to see the detailed pitch information within the game context, I suggest looking at the files in the inning subdirectory. If you want to see all the pitch information for a particular pitcher, you can go the pbp/pitchers subdirectory, but you need to know Elias playerID for your pitcher of interest. If you want to know what the various XML pitch data fields mean, read my glossary.

If you want to manipulate and analyze a single game’s worth of data, you can download and import the XML files into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Dr. Alan Nathan has laid out the steps for you at his Physics of Baseball site.

If you want to get a little more hardcore, you can download the XML data for every game in the 2007 season. Using Perl scripts adapted from Joseph Adler’s Baseball Hacks, I downloaded the data and parsed it into a MySQL database. I’ve outlined the steps needed for you to do this yourself and shared the Perl code to give you a head start. (I’m not aware of anyone who’s gotten the Perl-to-MySQL path working on a Mac, so if you have, please drop me a line.)

3. Where can I find resources?

Probably the most popular and valuable PITCHf/x resource on the web is Josh Kalk’s collection of player cards. Josh has classified every pitch as either a fastball, sinker, cutter, splitter, changeup, slider, curve, or knuckleball using a clustering algorithm and made graphs of pitch speed, movement, and release point for every pitcher with at least 100 pitches recorded by PITCHf/x. Strike zone charts are available for hitters. This is a great resource that reminds me in some ways of Wikipedia: the depth, breadth, and accuracy of the information is amazing, doubly so since it’s free, but the accuracy isn’t perfect, and it’s worth keeping that in mind. Stuff that looks quirky to you may in fact be quirky. (Felix Hernandez does not throw a 100-mph splitter.)

Josh Kalk has also developed a PITCHf/x tool that allows you to query his database for a specific subset of pitches and plot their strike zone location.

The Hardball Times published a pitch identification tutorial by John Walsh that is a good introduction to the general PITCHf/x topic as well as the specific topic of pitch identification.

Dr. Alan Nathan’s Physics of Baseball site has a lot of interesting resources, including some PITCHf/x-related material.

4. How do I identify pitch types?

Some people are good at identifying pitch types while at the ballpark or from the center field TV camera view. That was a splitter. That was a sinker. That was a slider. Etc. I am not one of those people. If you are not one of those people either, PITCHf/x was made for you. Even if you are one of those people, PITCHf/x can be a useful resource for learning about how different pitches move.

A pitcher’s fastest pitch is usually a four-seam fastball. A typical major-league fastball is around 90 mph, many a little faster, some a little slower. The fastball from a right-handed pitcher breaks in toward a right-handed hitter. Pitches from a lefty move the opposite way; a fastball from a lefty breaks away from a right-handed hitter. I’ll describe the movement for pitches from a righty and you can flip the orientation if you want to know how a similar pitch from a lefty would behave.

Pitchers throw variations of the fastball by changing the grip on the baseball or parts of their motion and delivery. The most popular variation is a two-seam fastball, which often thrown a couple mph slower and breaks in more and drops more to a right-handed hitter from a right-handed pitcher than the four-seamer. The cut fastball is also thrown a few mph slower than the four-seamer and breaks away a little from a right-handed hitter, if it breaks at all.

The most popular off-speed pitch is the changeup, which is typically thrown 7-10 mph slower than a pitcher’s fastball. It usually has a similar break to the fastball, in toward a right-handed hitter. Some pitchers employ a grip on their changeup to impart additional movement, usually causing the pitch to break in more and drop more to a right-handed hitter. The split-finger fastball acts much like a changeup except that its velocity and movement are usually somewhere between the fastball and changeup.

Breaking balls include the slider and curveball. The slider is usually thrown at the same speed as the changeup or sometimes a few mph faster. The movement on the slider can vary quite a bit from one pitcher to another. Some sliders move like a cutter, with hardly any left-right break. Other sliders move more like a curveball, which breaks away from a right-handed hitter and down. The curveball is the slowest pitch, thrown in the 65-80 mph range in major league baseball.

The knuckleball is a special case in major league baseball these days. As far as I know, there were only two regular practitioners of the pitch in the majors last year: Tim Wakefield and Charlie Haeger. The pitch is thrown with very little spin such that the airstream interaction with the seam orientation causes the baseball to move unpredictably. Wakefield and Haeger throw the knuckleball about 65-70 mph.

Of course, there are a number of variations and combinations of the above pitches and specialty pitches like the screwball and gyroball and even the 50-mph Orlando Hernandez eephus pitch.

Here is a plot showing the typical vertical and horizontal spin deflection (a.k.a.”break”) of typical pitches from a right-handed pitcher, as viewed from the catcher’s point of view. A mirror image would give you the plot for left-handed pitcher. You can use this as a key for interpreting some of the graphs on Josh Kalk’s player cards or for understanding the spin-induced movement on various types of pitches.

5. How do I interpret graphs?

PITCHf/x analysis and research is a promising field with wide application and broad interest, and there are a number of people who have made important contributions in the first year of analysis. As a result, there are many different formats for presenting the results. I’ll summarize and explain a few of them here and give a more detailed explanation of some of the graphs that I use most frequently.

The most common plots presented by other PITCHf/x researchers include information about the speed and spin-induced deflection of pitches. To the best of my knowledge, Joe Sheehan was the first to produce these plots, showing speed on the vertical axis and the two components of spin deflection as two sets of points on the horizontal axis. Joe hasn’t done much pitch classification work recently, but he deserves a nod as the groundbreaker in that field.

Something you’re more likely to encounter these days is a plot from John Walsh, such as those contained in his pitch identification tutorial. He plots vertical “movement” versus horizontal “movement”, where movement refers to the spin-induced deflection, and indicates speed by color-coding the points on the graph.

Most common of all are the plots from Josh Kalk’s pitcher cards, particularly the plots of vertical “break” versus horizontal “break”. These are similar to John Walsh’s plots except that instead of color-coding for speed, the points on the graph are color-coded by pitch type. Josh has separate graphs that plot speed versus horizontal break and speed versus vertical break, reminiscent of the original Sheehan plots. Josh’s player cards also contain information on release point, which is the height and left-right position of the pitch measured 50 feet from home plate, which is soon after the actual release by the pitcher.

In the past I have presented graphs similar to those of Sheehan and Kalk, but more recently I’ve adopted a graph from Alan Nathan as my mainstay. It is a polar plot, with the speed of the pitch on the radial axis. The faster the pitch, the farther from the center. The slower the pitch, the closer to the center. The angle is the angle of the Magnus force, which is the force that cause the ball to break. Curveballs break down, so they’ll be in the bottom part of the graph. Sliders break away from a right-handed hitter, so they’ll be on the left side of the graph. The Magnus force of a fastball pushes the ball up, causing it to drop less than it normally would due to gravity alone, so the fastballs will be on the top part of the graph.

I’ve also started showing a graph of what I call “late break”, which is a combination of the effects of spin deflection and gravity as well as the speed of the pitch. The goal is to show something close to what the hitter perceives as the break or movement of the pitch. I calculate the deflection of the pitch due to two forces, spin and gravity, in the last 0.25 seconds of its trajectory before it crosses the plate, an idea I got from Tom Tango. I chose a quarter second because that’s roughly the reaction time of a batter executing a swing. I chose to include the effect of gravity because I believe that more accurately reflects what hitters see. Hitters don’t attempt to hit a gravity-less pitch; they attempt to hit a pitch that’s being affected by gravity and being deflected by spin.

6. Is the data reliable?

Whenever you are viewing or analyzing PITCHf/x data, it’s worth keeping in my mind that 2007 was a work in progress for Sportvision and MLBAM. They instituted the system in only a handful of stadiums to begin the year and added more systems in other stadiums, particularly in the second half of the year, as they gained confidence in the performance and accuracy of PITCHf/x. They experimented with measuring the initial point of the pitch trajectory at various distances from home plate, finally settling on 50 feet. They worked to identify and remove spurious data that was collected by the system. They trained operators who did such things as identifying the beginning of play in each half inning and setting the top and bottom of each batter’s strike zone in the system. In addition, the camera systems were sometimes recalibrated, possibly at the beginning of each home stand.

So it’s a bit naive to assume the data we have is a perfectly objective, accurate, and precise measure of each pitch. In most cases, it’s pretty close (within an inch or two) and good enough–much better than anything we’ve ever had before! But what are some of the sources of error to watch out for?

The data for some pitches is missing. In some cases this is obvious, when a stadium doesn’t have a system for part of the year, for example. Other times, portions of games will be missing, or even just individual pitches. Perhaps the operator may not have turned the system on for the first pitch of the inning, or MLB/Sportvision retroactively discovered an error in their data and removed it. We are also missing PITCHf/x data for all hit batsmen during the regular season.

There is erroneous data–spurious or mis-measured pitches. For example, the data may say that a pitch was released from ten feet off the ground, and unless Gumby has caught on with a major league team, I doubt any pitcher can reach that high. There are a number of 30-40 mph pitches that are recorded in the data that do not appear to be realistic. It’s been suggested that some of these may have been the system inadvertently recording other non-pitch throws of the baseball between the mound and the plate as a pitch.

There are indications of park and/or camera system bias. Data from Seattle and Toronto indicate pitch speeds that seem a few mph higher than they should be. Look how hard Dustin McGowan and Felix Hernandez are shown to have thrown on average. These guys are hard throwers, but not that hard. Similarly, the system at Fenway Park seems to have underestimated pitch speeds and otherwise collected strange data.

There are also altitude and temperature effects. In this case, the data collected by PITCHf/x may be completely correct, but our interpretation of the data has to take into account that air density affects how a pitched baseball moves. A curveball thrown in the thin air of Denver, Colorado won’t break as much as the same curveball thrown in the pea soup at sea level.

7. Where can I go for further discussion and study?

If you want to learn more about the details of Sportvision’s PITCHf/x system and MLB’s implementation, read this article by Mark Newman of MLB.com.

If you want to learn more about the physics of pitched baseballs, Alan Nathan is your man, and his freshman physics lectures on the Physics of Baseball at the University of Illinois are an excellent place to begin. You might also find these articles by Dave Baldwin and Terry Bahill helpful.

If you want to learn more about pitch classification methods, as I mentioned earlier, John Walsh’s pitch identification tutorial is a good place to start. You may also want to consult my survey of the topic, which contains a particular in-depth emphasis on my own work on the subject.

If you want to discuss PITCHf/x with other sabermetricians, I recommend The BOOK Blog run by Tom Tango.

If you want to learn about systematic error correction for the PITCHf/x data set, read Josh Kalk’s posts at his blog, and this post by Ike Hall, including comments by Alan Nathan.

If you want to learn about pitch sequencing analysis, Joe P. Sheehan’s Command Post at Baseball Analysts is a good resource, including these posts on the topic. Joe Sheehan’s writing is an excellent resource on a number of diverse PITCHf/x topics. Although I only listed him here under pitch sequencing, it’s well worth going through his archives on many other topics if you are interested in learning about PITCHf/x.

Dan Fox’s work is another great PITCHf/x resource, although, like Joe, I couldn’t find a neat category to file him under. He’s covered everything from pitch classification to measures of strike zone judgment.

If you want to learn about pitching styles, strategies, and repertoires throughout baseball history, I highly recommend reading the Neyer/James Guide to Pitchers, published in 2003. Rob Neyer has updates to the book at his blog.

I have a couple scouting reports up at the Hardball Times based on data from PITCHf/x, one on Scott Kazmir and the other on Cole Hamels.

I also highly recommend Matt Lentzner’s article at THT on his theory of pitching mechanics.

I’ve been doing a few other things behind the scenes that haven’t seen publication here or at THT, but I’m still involved in baseball analysis and writing, in case you were wondering.  You can look for my article on Cliff Lee in the upcoming Hardball Times Annual 2009, which will be available November 30.

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